Wednesday, April 19, 2017

A Hudson River School Legacy

New-York Historical Society
March 24 – June 4, 2017

In 2015, the New-York Historical Society received a magnificent gift of 15 Hudson River School paintings from the collection of the late Arthur and Eileen Newman. These new acquisitions will be displayed together for the first time since they hung on the walls of the Newmans’ Manhattan apartment, alongside selected examples from New-York Historical’s longstanding collections.

Inspired by the natural beauty of the Hudson River Valley region and the emotional intensity of the scenes captured by painters of the first self-consciously “American” school of art, Arthur and Eileen Newman acquired works by artists including Thomas Cole, Frederic Edwin Church, and Martin Johnson Heade. Collecting began as an avocation, for the couple’s personal pleasure and enrichment. But ultimately the Newmans’ sought to bring their private holdings to a public institution so that these gems of the Hudson River School could be shared with future generations.

Cole’s Sunset, View on the Catskill;

Church’s Early Autumn;

Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823–1900)
Wickham Pond and Sugar Loaf Mountain, Orange County, 1876
Oil on canvas
32 1/8 in. × 40 in. × 1 1/4 in
Collection of Arthur and Eileen Newman, Bequest of Eileen Newman, 2015.33.9
Photography, Glenn Castellano, Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society

and Cropsey’s Wickham Pond and Sugar Loaf Mountain, Orange County

Martin Johnson Heade (1819–1904)
Storm Clouds over the Marshes, ca. 1871–75
Oil on canvas
13 1/8 × 24 1/4 × 1 3/8 in.
Collection of Arthur and Eileen Newman, Bequest of Eileen Newman, 2015.33.7
Photography, Glenn Castellano, Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society

Frederic Edwin Church (1826–1900)
Home by the Lake, 1852
Oil on canvas
26 1/2 × 40 1/2 × 1 1/8 in.
Collection of Arthur and Eileen Newman, Bequest of Eileen Newman , 2015.33.13
Photography, Glenn Castellano, Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society

join other paintings to reveal the legacy of the Hudson River School.

Complementing A Hudson River School Legacy, New-York Historical presents ​​The Inspiration:​ ​“​​​​The Hudson River Portfolio​,”​ curated by Roberta J.M. Olson, curator of drawings. ​In 1820 Irish-born ​​William Guy Wall embarked on a sketching tour of the Hudson River Valley​. A selection of ​his watercolors were engraved by English-born master printmaker John Hill in ​​​​The Portfolio, long-considered the forerunner of the Hudson River School of painters. ​A cornerstone of American printmaking and landscape, its topographical views cover 212 miles of the river’s 315-mile course―from Lake Luzerne in the Adirondacks to Governors Island near Manhattan.

William Guy Wall (1792–after 1864)
Preparatory Study for Plate 19 of “The Hudson River Portfolio”: View of the Palisades, New Jersey, 1820
Watercolor, graphite, and scratching out with touches of gouache on paper, laid on card
Gift of John Austin Stevens, 1903.13
William Guy Wall (1792–after 1864)
Preparatory Study for Plate 10 of “The Hudson River Portfolio”: View Near Fort Edward, New York, 1820
Watercolor, scratching out, selective glazing, and touches of gouache and black ink on paper, laid on card, laid on canvas
James B. Wilbur Fund, 1941.1119

On view are the eight rare watercolor models by Wall (the only known in existence), a bound copy of The Hudson River Portfolio,​ and other related works, all drawn from the New-York Historical’s rich holdings.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Botticelli and the Search for the Divine

Sandro Botticelli and workshop, Venus (detail), about 1484–90.  Oil on canvas, transferred from panel.  Galleria Sabauda, Turin.  lnv.  172.
Sandro Botticelli and workshop, Venus (detail), about 1484–90. Oil on canvas, transferred from panel. Galleria Sabauda, Turin. lnv. 172.
The exhibition explores dramatic changes in the artist’s style and subject matter that reflect the shifting political and religious climate of Florence during his lifetime—from poetic depictions of classical gods and goddesses to austere sacred themes that dominate his later production under the influence of the stern Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola (originator of the infamous “Bonfires of the Vanities”).

Traveling to the MFA as part of a partnership with the Muscarelle Museum of Art at the College of William & Mary, Botticelli and the Search for the Divine (on view April 15 to July 9, 2017 in the Lois B. and Michael K. Torf Gallery) also features a number of paintings by Botticelli’s key contemporaries.  

“Great art stands as a historical reflection of the time of its creation, and in the moment can encourage all of us to think and act more creatively,” said Matthew Teitelbaum, Ann and Graham Gund Director of the MFA. “Despite deep admiration for Botticelli’s work across the globe, there has never been a major Botticelli exhibition in North America. We are especially pleased to offer the public the opportunity to engage deeply with this period of artistic achievement, Florence in the 15th and early 16th centuries, when Sandro Botticelli was the most famous painter in the city. Although he lived more than 500 years ago, his art still speaks to us directly.”

The selection of paintings in Botticelli and the Search for the Divine encompasses major works from the entire span of the artist’s long and prolific career. The exhibition is organized chronologically, divided into four sections: Botticelli’s artistic formation under his master and principal influence Fra Filippo Lippi; Botticelli’s earliest work and exploration of new genres; his mature years, during which his success reflected remarkable proficiency in depicting erudite literary themes; and his later years, during which he produced profoundly religious paintings, not well known today, under the sway of Savonarola.

“Our exhibition traces a fascinating story of an artist shaped by tumultuous times. We hope to bring our visitors into Botticelli’s Florence, a city full of brilliant painters and opinionated patrons, with our artist often caught in the middle,” said Frederick Ilchman, Chair, Art of Europe and Mrs. Russell W. Baker Curator of Paintings at the MFA. “Since Botticelli was one of the most versatile artists of the Italian Renaissance, we’re also excited that our exhibition will include a wide variety of subject matter and a surprising range of media. American audiences will be able to experience the full scope of the artist’s achievement firsthand, thanks to unprecedented loans from Italy, as well as generous loans from Boston institutions.”

The son of a tanner, Botticelli received early training as a goldsmith before joining the studio of painter Fra Filippo Lippi (about 1406–69) for an apprenticeship that lasted from approximately 1460 to 1467. Several of Lippi’s depictions of the Madonna and Child—one of his specialties—are displayed, including the majestic

Madonna and Child (about 1466–69, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence), which shows the figures in a touching embrace, before a grand architectural backdrop. Lippi’s graceful, ornamental style made a strong impression on Botticelli, who emulated his teacher’s gift of expressing deeply felt tenderness.

While Botticelli’s earliest paintings included copies of his master’s compositions, the Virgin and Child (Madonna of the Loggia) (about 1467, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence) is generally regarded as one of the younger artist’s earliest independent renditions of a sacred theme that would become one of his own specialties.

Botticelli established his own workshop in about 1470. His assistants included his master’s son, Filippino Lippi (about 1457–1504), who distinguished himself as Botticelli’s best pupil after initial training with his father. Similar compositions can be seen in

the younger Lippi’s Adoration of the Child with Saint John (about 1485, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence)

and Botticelli’s tondo, or round painting, The Nativity (about 1482–85, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum).

A rare loan from the Church of San Salvatore in Ognissanti, Florence, Saint Augustine in His Study (about 1480), was Botticelli’s first major fresco and the most important work on public view by the artist during his lifetime. The success of the image, which portrays the patron saint of humanism as a powerful older man with large, sculptural hands and a mood of solemn grandeur, likely explains why Botticelli received soon after commissions for more frescoes than any other painter on the walls of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.

After a year in Rome, Botticelli returned to Florence. The decade that followed marked the peak of his career, closely intertwined with patronage from Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruling member of the Medici dynasty. Lorenzo’s emblem of linked diamond rings can be seen on the dress of the heroine subduing a mythical creature in

Botticelli’s Minerva and the Centaur (about 1482, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence). The painting was possibly commissioned by Lorenzo as a wedding gift for his cousin Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, who in turn commissioned Botticelli’s most iconic work—the Birth of Venus, (above) painted around 1484. Responding to the immediate enthusiasm for his masterpiece, Botticelli replicated his portrayal of the nude goddess of love— itself based on a famous lost marble statue from antiquity—a number of times. The Venus on view in the exhibition is one of only two surviving versions, perhaps executed by the master with the help of an assistant. Its superb quality indicates the high standards of the workshop. Standing on a narrow stone parapet, Venus is silhouetted against a black background strongly lit from the right, as if to evoke a sculpture. A transparent sleeved garment with a square neckline opens just below her chest, and her shoulders descend to her arms in the same stream of movement as her floating hair.

The golden age of the Medici court ended abruptly when Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492. As had become the custom in Tuscany for great men, a funerary mask (1492, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Tesoro dei Granduchi) was modeled from his face in order to preserve the effigy of Florence’s foremost citizen. Lorenzo was succeeded by his son, Piero the Unfortunate, who was soon exiled along with the entire Medici family after a series of disastrous decisions that left Florence defenseless against an invasion led by the French king, Charles VIII.

In this vacuum, an adversary of the Medici, Fra Girolamo Savonarola (1452–98), persuaded the French king to grant the city more lenient terms of surrender. The citizens of Florence ceded their government to Savonarola, who used forceful and apocalyptic sermons to insist on harsh moral reforms. In 1497 and 1498, he organized two “Bonfires of the Vanities,” during which thousands of books, paintings and other possessions associated with temptation and sin were set on fire. Botticelli is the most prominent among the artists whose depictions of nudes and pagan subjects were likely burned—and some authorities believe that Botticelli himself was a willing participant, throwing his own paintings itno the flames.

While there are no records that Botticelli ever personally met Savonarola, he must have heard him preach often. Many scholars believe that changes in the artist’s style are partially in response to the cultural and societal changes caused by the friar’s reign. In this last chapter of his career, Botticelli progressively simplified his style by reducing his color palette, flattening the figures and rounding their contours, as well as filling the background and suppressing the sense of spatial depth.

Intended for private devotion, the MFA’s Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist (late 1490s) possesses the characteristics of Botticelli’s later manner.

In comparison with his earlier depictions of the subject, a certain stiffness can be observed in the profiles of the figures and in the drapery folds. Virgin and the Child with Young Saint John the Baptist (about 1505, Galleria Palatina, Palazzo Pitti, Florence) offers an even more austere and solemn portrayal. Holding the Christ child, the Virgin Mary bends forward and lowers her son to the young St. John the Baptist, alluding to Christ’s later descent from the cross. The painting has long been considered one of Botticelli’s most enigmatic works, probably completed between the execution of Savonarola in 1498 and the painter’s death in 1510.

Despite enormous popularity, Savonarola’s success did not go unchallenged—he was banned from preaching and excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in 1497. The friar boldly agreed to a trial by fire in 1498, closely followed by his arrest and conviction of heresy. In May, Savonarola was hanged and burned by secular authorities.

Botticelli’s Mystic Crucifixion (about 1500, Harvard Art Museums) is believed to be a response to the execution, which occurred only a few months after the second Bonfire of the Vanities. The painting incorporates themes from Savonarola’s catastrophic sermons, with firebrands and weapons raining from the sky and an angel of justice raising a sword to slay a small lion that symbolizes Florence. The city itself appears in the background, cast in a heavenly light.

In addition to paintings, the exhibition in Boston includes rare books, engravings and woodcuts that help bring to life the rich cultural context of Florence in the era of the Medici and Savonarola.

A rare 1481 edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy (Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum), for which Botticelli designed engraved illustrations, exemplifies the esteem for erudition in Lorenzo the Magnificent’s court and his promotion of Florence as the center for intellectual pursuits. Savonarola’s own writings will be present through two books of theology from the MFA’s collection.

Visionaries: Creating a Modern Guggenheim Part I

Opening on February 10, 2017, on the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Visionaries: Creating a Modern Guggenheim features more than 170 modern objects from the permanent collections of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice. 

Assembling many of the foundation’s most iconic works along with treasures by artists less familiar, this celebratory exhibition explores avant-garde innovations of the late nineteenth through mid-twentieth centuries, as well as the groundbreaking activities of six pioneering arts patrons who brought to light some of the most significant artists of their day and established the Guggenheim Foundation’s identity as a forward- looking institution. Visionaries includes important works by artists such as Alexander Calder, Paul Cézanne, Marc Chagall, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Fernand Léger, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, and Vincent van Gogh. 

Visionaries: Creating a Modern Guggenheim is organized by Megan Fontanella, Curator, Collections and Provenance, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, with support from Ylinka Barotto, Curatorial Assistant, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. 
Installed in the Frank Lloyd Wright–designed rotunda and the Thannhauser Gallery on Tower Level 2, this exhibition showcases the museum’s exceptional modern holdings as organized through the perspectives of six proponents of the avant-garde who intersected with the Guggenheim Foundation in the early decades of its history and gave their personal collections, in whole or in part, to the institution. 
Of these visionaries, foremost is the museum’s founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim, who, with support from his trusted advisor, the German-born artist Hilla Rebay, set aside a more traditional collecting focus to become a great champion of nonobjective art—a strand of abstraction with spiritual aims, epitomized by the work of Vasily Kandinsky. Amassed against the backdrop of economic crisis and war in the 1930s and 1940s, Guggenheim’s unparalleled modern holdings formed the basis of his foundation, established eighty years ago in 1937 with the goal of encouraging art, art education, and enlightenment for the public. 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation’s formative collection was subsequently shaped through major acquisitions from contemporaries who shared Guggenheim’s pioneering spirit. These acquisitions include a group of prized Impressionist and early School of Paris masterworks from Justin K. Thannhauser; the eclectic Expressionist inventory of émigré art dealer Karl Nierendorf; the rich holdings of abstract and Surrealist painting and sculpture from self-proclaimed “art addict” Peggy Guggenheim, Solomon’s niece; and key examples from the estates of artists Katherine S. Dreier and Hilla Rebay, both pivotal in promoting modern art in America. Highlights from each of these collections feature prominently in Visionaries and convey a narrative on avant-garde innovation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 
Visionaries offers a rare opportunity to explore in-depth key artists represented among the museum’s holdings, such as Kandinsky and Klee, through multiple examples that reflect the shared interest in their work among the six featured patrons. The exhibition includes nearly twenty-five works from the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, seldom displayed outside of the Venice palazzo, including canvases by Max Ernst, René Magritte, and Yves Tanguy, and sculptures by Joseph Cornell and Alberto Giacometti. 

Among this group, Jackson Pollock’s Alchemy (1947), considered among his finest paintings and a celebrated icon of postwar abstraction, will be shown in the United States for the first time in almost fifty years.  

More than a dozen works on paper by Picasso and Van Gogh, rarely on view to the public, will be installed in the Thannhauser Gallery, where the earliest works represented in the Guggenheim collection are typically on display. Additionally, sculptures by Edgar Degas and paintings by Pierre- Auguste Renoir, Paul Gauguin, and Édouard Manet will be placed on the ramps for the occasion of the exhibition. In May, a fresh selection of works on paper by artists including Klee, Picasso, and Van Gogh will replace the first grouping. 
Several conservation projects have been initiated as part of the planning of this anniversary exhibition. Red Lily Pads (1956), a painted steel sculpture by Alexander Calder spanning nearly 17 feet that will be suspended over the rotunda’s fountain, underwent extensive historical research and analysis, resulting in a beautifully integrated surface and restoration of the mobile’s proper balance. 

Manet’s Woman in Evening Dress (1877–80) was studied by a group of curators, conservators, and scientists who traced the history of the work and examined discolored resin varnish and overpaint on the surface. A complex treatment removed this coating to reveal a cool palette, vigorous brushwork, and the fine details of Manet’s sketchy composition. 

Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Conservator of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, cleaned The Studio (L'Atelier), 1928, an oil and crayon on canvas by Picasso, before the work traveled to New York. Additionally, works by Josef Albers, Kandinsky, and Mondrian, among others, were treated in preparation for the exhibition.

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Black Lines, December 1913 Schwarze Linien, December 1913
Oil on canvas
51 x 51 5/8 inches (129.4 x 131.1 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Landscape with Red Spots, No. 2, 1913 Landschaft mit roten Flecken, Nr. 2, 1913
Oil on canvas
46 1/4 x 55 1/8 inches (117.5 x 140 cm)
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 1976

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
White Center, 1921 Weisses Zentrum, 1921
Oil on canvas
46 3/4 x 53 3/4 inches (118.7 x 136.5 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, The Hilla Rebay Collection 71.1936.R98 

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Circles on Black, 1921 Krugi na Chyornom, 1921
Oil on canvas
53 3/4 x 47 1/8 inches (136.5 x 120 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Dominant Curve, April 1936 Courbe dominante, April 1936
Oil on canvas
50 7/8 x 76 1/2 inches (129.2 x 194.3 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Several Circles, January–February 1926 Einige Kreise, January–February 1926
Oil on canvas
55 1/4 x 55 3/8 inches (140.3 x 140.7 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Painting with White Border, May 1913 Bild mit weißem Rand, May 1913
Oil on canvas
55 1/4 x 78 7/8 inches (140.3 x 200.3 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Blue Mountain, 1908–09 Der blaue Berg, 1908–09
Oil on canvas
41 3/4 x 38 inches (106 x 96.6 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift

Vasily Kandinsky(1866-1944)
Improvisation 28 (Second Version), 1912 Improvisation 28 [zweite Fassung], 1912
Oil on canvas
43 7/8 x 63 7/8 inches (111.4 x 162.1 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift

Camille Pissarro(1830-1903)
The Hermitage at Pontoise, ca. 1867
Les côteaux de l’Hermitage, Pontoise, ca. 1867
Oil on canvas
59 5/8 x 79 inches (151.4 x 200.6 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978

Pierre-Auguste Renoir(1841-1919)
Woman with Parakeet, 1871 La femme à la perruche, 1871
Oil on canvas
36 1/4 x 25 5/8 inches (92.1 x 65.1 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978

Édouard Manet(1832-1883)
Before the Mirror, 1876 Devant la glace, 1876
Oil on canvas
36 1/4 x 28 1/8 inches (92.1 x 71.4 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978

Paul Gauguin(1848-1903)
Haere Mai, 1891
Oil on burlap
28 1/2 x 36 inches (72.4 x 91.4 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978

Vincent van Gogh(1853-1890)
Mountains at Saint-Rémy, July 1889 Montagnes à Saint-Rémy, July 1889
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978

Edgar Degas(1834-1917)
Dancers in Green and Yellow, ca. 1903 Danseuses vertes et jaunes, ca. 1903
Pastel and charcoal on several pieces of tracing paper, mounted on paperboard
38 7/8 x 28 1/8 inches (98.8 x 71.5 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978 

Henri Rousseau(1844-1910)
The Football Players, 1908 Les joueurs de football, 1908
Oil on canvas
39 1/2 x 31 5/8 inches (100.3 x 80.3 cm) Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 60.1583
Remarks: Formerly collection Justin K. Thannhauser

Henri Rousseau(1844-1910)
Artillerymen, ca. 1893–95 Les artilleurs, ca. 1893–95
Oil on canvas
31 1/8 x 39 inches (79.1 x 98.9 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift
Remarks: Exhibited at Galerie Thannhauser, Berlin, 1927

BONHAMS 19th Century European Paintings 3 May 2017 New York

A Beautiful Gift, a work by the French Academic painter Émile-Auguste Hublin (1830-1891), is among the leading works in Bonhams' next 19th Century European Paintings sale in New York on Wednesday 3 May. It is estimated at US$50,000-70,000.

Hublin's artistic influence can be traced back to the French 18th-century master, Jacques-Louis David whose emphasis on excellent draftsmanship, brilliant coloring and an eye for beauty is clearly evident in A Beautiful Gift. Hublin studied under François Édouard Picot, a pupil of David who established a studio at the prestigious Académie des Beaux Arts to preserve and extend his legacy.

Bonhams Senior Specialist in European Paintings in the US, Madalina Lazen, said: "Hublin's paintings are a vivid document of Bretton costumes of the 19th Century, as encountered by the artist during his trips through Brittany. His sitters are typically young girls engaged in house work or with animals, and their modeling against the dark background is flawless, bringing out the luminous features and costume highlights."

The sale also features works from the Collection of Alex and Barbara Kasten. A strong selection of paintings includes:

Footsteps by the British artist Isaac Snowman (1874-1947), estimated at US$60,000-80,000. Exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 1901, it was one of a series of Snowman's works depicting young mothers and their children dressed in the most fashionable outfits. Well known as a society painter, Snowman was also a strong supporter of the Zionist movement and campaigned actively on its behalf.

Die goldene Meile bei Remagen estimated at US$40,000-60,000 by the Austrian painter Franz Unterberger (1838-1902). The work depicts a section of the Golden Mile – a stretch of the river Rhine famous for its picturesque beauty and economic significance as the centerpiece of the growing international tourism industry.

La Maison d'Henri Martin á Saint-Cirq-Lapopie by Jacques Martin-Ferrières (1893-1972). The painting, estimated at US$20,000-30,000, shows the house in the medieval stronghold of Saint-Cirq-Lapopie, near Cahors, bought by Martin-Ferrières's father, the painter Henri Martin, at the turn of the 20th century. This work by the 25 year-old Jacques shows his father's influence. The pointillist technique is employed with great skill and layers of thick paint are superimposed in perfect chromatic harmony.

Works by two 19th-century Romanian artists make a rare appearance at auction.

 Danube Guard (Santinela) by Nicolae Grigorescu (1838-1907) was a product of the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78. Romania broke away from the Ottoman Empire, under which it had been ruled for 400 years, to fight alongside the Russians. Grigorescu accompanied the troops as an artist-reporter, making hundreds of sketches along the way that he later used as the basis of a series of oil paintings, including Danube Guard. It carries an estimate of US$20,000-30,000)

A portrait of a Young Girl (Cap de Copil) by Nicolae Tonitza (1886-1940) is also estimated at US$20,000-30,000. Tonitza was greatly inspired by Post-Impressionism and Expressionist art, and was responsible for infusing new life into the Romanian art scene at the beginning of the 20th century. He greatly enjoyed painting children – his own as well as those of his friends and relatives - and following them from a very young age through different stages of maturity.

Both paintings were once in the collection of Roy Melbourne who was political attaché to the American Embassy in Bucharest, 1946-48.